AGGREGATE -Crushed stone, slag or water-worn gravel that comes in a wide range
of sizes. Used to surface built-up roofs.
ALLIGATORING -A characteristic of asphalt which occurs during the aging process
in which the loss Of volatile oils and the oxidation brought about by solar radiation
produces a pattern of cracks which resemble an alligator hide, because of the
limited tolerance of asphalt to thermal expansion or contraction.
ASPHALT -Tar or similar bituminous solid substance. A natural material, that can be
mixed with rock for paving, or applied as water proofing, to various papers, felts, and
BALLEST -Weight used to protect single-ply roofs or to prevent blow off of systems
which are not adhered.
BACKNAILING -The practice of nailing roofing felts to the deck under the overlap, in
addition to hot mopping, to prevent slippage of felts.
BARE SPOTS -Small areas on a roof where the top membrane has become
exposed to the elements.
BARREL ROOF – A roof design which in cross section is arched.
BASE PLY – An asphalt-saturated and/or coated felt installed as the first ply with 4
inch laps in a built-up roof system under the following felts which can be installed in
a shingle like fashion.
BATTEN -Cedar or redwood board, 3/4″ thick, 2″ wide, 4′ long. Nailed to roof deck to
hold certain kinds of tile.
BID -Written offering, of price for work to be performed. Not necessarily a contract,
can be more like an estimate, with only basics laid out.
BITUMEN -Natural substances such as asphalt or maltha, which consist mainly of
BITUMINOUS -Consisting of or resembling bitumen. Can be man made, such as
those made from petroleum by-products.
BLISTER -An enclosed raised spot evident on the surface of a roof. They are mainly
caused by the expansion of trapped air, water vapor, moisture or other gases.
Blisters on a roof may involve only the coating, one or more plies of felt or may
involve the whole membrane thickness.
BOND -A paid for premium through an insurance company, that affords consumers
some protection against work performed. $5000 minimum in most areas. To secure
larger jobs, contractors will get larger bonds, over $1,000,000 not uncommon.
BOND BREAKER -A substance or a tape applied between two adjoining materials to
prevent adhesion between them.
BUILT-UP ROOF (BUR) -A roof consisting minimally of a BUR (tar or asphalt)
membrane but may also include insulation, vapor retarders and other components.
BUILT-UP ROOF MEMBRANE (BURM) -A built-up roof consisting of plies or layers
of roofing felt bonded together on site With bitumen; either tar or asphalt.
BUNDLE -A package of roofing shingles, ie: a bundle of shakes, a bundle of
composition shingles. Used as a unit of measure. 3 bundles to a square, 5 bundles
to a square.
BURNOUT -Used to describe the effect the sun will have on exposed felt. Usually in
relation to a hole in a shake roof, ie: The sun caused a burnout between shakes and
BURN THROUGH TIME -A measurement, used to describe the amount of time it
might take burning embers to burn through the exterior to the interior, i.e. a 1 hour
burn time is equivalent to a Class A fire rating.
BUTTERFLY ROOF -A roof assembly which pitches sharply from either side toward
CANOPY -An overhanging roof.
CANT STRIP -A beveled support used at the intersection of the roof deck with
vertical surfaces so that bends in the roofing membrane to form base flashings can
be made without breaking the felts.
CAP SHEETS -One to four plies of felt bonded and top coated with bitumen that is
laid over an existing roof as a treatment for defective roofs.
CAULKING -Adhesive used to fill in small areas against water. Ie: Around windows
in a long bead so water won’t leak in. Sold in tubes, and applied by pressure.
Normally by hand with a ‘caulking gun’.
CEMENT ROOFING -A general term for a variety of trowelable mastics, asphalt or
tar, which are used during roof construction and repair.
CHALK(ING) -The resulting dust which occurs on a surface that is susceptible to
Ultra Violet degradation.
CHECKING -A pattern of surface cracks running in irregular lines. When found in
the top pour Of an asphalt built-up roof, is the preliminary stage of alligatoring.
CLEAT -A device made of formed sheet metal which is mechanically attached onto
which the fascia flange of a metal edge is snapped, so as to protect against wind
COAL TAR PITCH (TAR) -A bituminous material which is a by-product from the
coking of coal. It is used as the waterproofing material for tar and gravel built-up
COLD APPLIED -Products that can be applied without heating. These are in
contrast to tar or asphalt which need to be heated to be applied.
COLD PATCH -A roof repair done with cold applied material.
COLLAR -A conical metal cap flashing used in conjunction with vent pipes or stacks
usually located several inches above the plane of the roof, for the purpose of
shedding water away from the base of the vent.
CONDUCTOR -A pipe for conveying rain water from the roof gutter to a drain, or
from a roof drain to the storm drain; also called a leader, downspout, or downpipe.
CONTRACT -The written form of an agreement, enforceable by law, between two or
more people for doing or not doing specific things.
CONTRACTOR -A person who contracts to provide products or services at a set
price or rate.
CONTROL JOINT -A control joint controls or accommodates movement in the
surface component of a roof.
COPING -A construction unit placed at the top of the parapet wall to serve as a
cover for the wall.
CORNICE -A horizontal projecting course on the exterior of a building, usually at the
base of the parapet.
CRICKET -The evaluation of a part of a roof surface as a means of promoting
drainage of water from behind a peaked obstacle such as chimney.
CUPOLA -A small monitor or dome at the peak of a pitched roof.
CURB -A short wall or masonry built above the level of the roof. It provides a means
of flashing the deck equipment.
CUTBACK -Basic asphalt or tar which has been “cutback” with solvents and oils so
that the material become fluid.
CUT OFF -A piece of roofing membrane consisting of one or more narrow plies of
felt usually moped in hot to seal the edge of insulation at the end of a day’s work.
DAMP PROOFING -A process used on concrete, masonry or stone surfaces for the
purpose of repelling water. Moisture vapor readily penetrates coatings of this type.
The main purpose of dampproofing is to prevent the coated surface from absorbing
rain water while allowing is to breathe moisture vapor out of the structure.
DEAD LOAD -The constant designed weight (of the roof) and any permanent
fixtures attached above or below.
DECK -This is the actual surface on which the roofing will be applied. Usually
plywood (3/8″ – 1″) or 1″x4″ or larger boards.
DIVERTER – Used to direct water
DORMER -The house-like window structure which projects from a sloping roof.
DOWNSPOUT -The metal pipe used to drain water from a roof.
DRIP EDGE – A device designed to prevent water from running back or under an
DRIPPAGE – Bitumen material that drips through roof deck joints, or over the edge of
a roof deck.
DRY LAP – A term describing the absence of bitumen between the plies of felt at the
overlap in a BURM.
DRY SHEET – A ply mechanically attached to wood or gypsum decks to prevent
asphalt or pitch from penetrating the deck and leaking into the building below.
DUCT – A cylindrical or rectangular “tube” used to move air either from exhaust or
intake. The installation is referred to as “duct work”.
EAVE -This is the lower, overhanging part at the bottom of your roof. Typically down where the
gutter is located is called the eave line.
EDGE METAL – A term relating to brake or extruded metal around the perimeter of a
EMULSION – In roofing, a coating consisting of asphalt and fillers suspended in
END LAP – The amount or location of overlap at the end of a roll of roofing felts in
E.V.T.-EQUI-VISCOUS TEMPERATURE – The critical temperature at which asphalt
reaches the viscosity most favorable to good adhesion when applied in a BUR.
EXPANSION COEFFICIENT – The amount that a specific material will vary in any
one dimension with a change of temperature.
EXPANSION JOINT – A device used to make up the motion of expansion and
contraction. On large roofs this provision for the movement of the materials forming
the walls, roof deck and roof covering is usually made by deliberately separating the
building into sections, and covering separation between adjacent sections with the
expansion joint to allow movement but keep out the weather. Expansion joints,
unlike control joints, penetrate through the roof deck.
EXPOSURE -Used to describe the amount of each row of roofing, not covered by
the above row. Ie: If you look at a shake, tile or composition roof you will see clearly
defined rows. Each shake is 24″ tall, how much do you actually see? About 10″ up
and down. That is the amount of exposure. It matters because each row laps over
the one below, to give good coverage and to allow it’s nails to penetrate the row
EXTRUSION – An item formed by forcing a base metal (frequently aluminum) or
plastic, at a malleable temperature, through a die to achieve a desired shape.
EYEBROW – A flat, normally concrete, projection which protrudes horizontally from
a building wall; Eyebrows are generally located above windows.
FACADE -The front of a building. Frequently, in architectural terms an artificial or
FASCIA – Any cover board at the edge or eaves of a flat, sloping, or overhanging
roof which is placed in a vertical position to protect the edge of the roof assembly. Fascia boards are generally behind the gutter.
FASTENERS – A general term covering a wide variety of screws and nails which
may be used for mechanically securing various components of a building.
FELT -Paper, matted together by pressure and impregnated with asphalt to make
FIFTEEN POUND -Felt commonly made in 36″ tall rolls and sold by weight. 15
pounds per 100 square feet of coverage, with one roll covering 400 square feet.
FIRE RATING -Measurement used by independent labs to determine resistance to
FLASHING -Commonly any metal used on a roof to cover pipes, walls, skylights,
chimney, or valleys.It is used to seal penetrations and gaps. Can be waterproof paper used around windows.
FISHMOUTH – A characteristic opening at the exposed lap edge of BUR felts due to
loss of bond or wrinkling of the felt.
FLAKE – A scale like particle. To lose bond from a surface in small thin pieces.
Sometimes a paint film “flakes”.
FLASHING – Connecting devices that seal membrane joints at expansion joints,
walls, drains, gravel stops, and other places where the membrane is interrupted or
FLASHING BASE – The upturned edge of the watertight membrane formed at a roof
termination point by the extension of the felts vertically over the cant strip and up
the wall for a varying distance where they are secured with mechanical fasteners.
FLASHING COUNTER – The formed metal secured to a wall, curb, or roof top unit to
cover and protect the upper edge of a base flashing and its associated fasteners.
FLASHING, STEP – Individual small pieces of metal flashing material used to flash
around chimneys, dormers, and such projections along the slope of a roof. The
individual pieces are overlapped and stepped up the vertical surface.
FLASHIN, THRU-WALL – Flashing extended completely through a masonry wall.
Designed and applied in combination with counterflashings, to prevent water which
may enter the wall above from proceeding downward in the wall or into the roof deck
or roofing system.
FLAT SEAM – A seam at the junction of sheet metal roof components that has been
bent at the plane of the roof.
FLOP – Cutting of felts into strips, coating the deck side with bitumen and placing
(flopping) the felt onto the deck
GABLE – The rake end of a building’s roof as distinguished from the front or rear side. The
triangular end of and exterior wall from the level of the eaves to the ridge of a
GAMBREL ROOF – A type of roof which has its slope broken by an obtuse angle, so
that the lower slope is steeper than the upper slope. A double-sloped roof having
GLAZE COAT – A light, uniform mopping of bitumen on exposed felts to protect
them from the weather, pending completion of the job.
GLAZE COAT – A light, uniform mopping of bitumen on exposed felts to protect
them from the weather, pending completion of the job.
GRANULES – The mineral particles of a graded size which are embedded in the
asphalt coating of shingles and roofing.
GRAVEL – Loose fragments of rock used for surfacing built-up roofs, in sizes varying
from 1/8″ to 1 3/4″.
GROUT OR GROUTING – A cement mortar mixture commonly used to fill joints and
cavities of masonry. On roof decks, the joints between many types of precast roof
deck slabs are grouted with cement grout.
GUTTER – Metal trough at the eaves of a roof to carry rain water from the roof to the
downspout and controls roof drainage.
GUTTER STRAP – Metal bands used to support the gutter.
GYPSUM – A hydrated sulfate of calcium occurring naturally in sedimentary rock. In
roofing, a type of lightweight deck made from this pulverized rock.
HANDYMAN -Jack of all trades. That is an old expression but applies here. Typically
someone with knowledge of various trades, but not specializing in any one. Handling
smaller jobs such as normal upkeep.
HEADLAP -The amount of lap given to a material at the top of the application. Such
as rolling out some felt and overlapping onto the one below a number of inches.
HIP -The angled vertical ridge line formed at the juncture of two sloped sides, ie: A pyramid would
have four hips. Where each of two sides would meet.
HIP AND RIDGE -This describes the material used to cover the hip or ridge areas.
Known also as trim pieces.
INSIDE DRAIN -A roof drain positioned on a roof at some location other than the
perimeter. It drains surface water inside the building through closed pipes to a
INSURANCE -Commonly called public liability insurance. A special policy that
protects the overall public from roofing disaster. Such as a building catching on fire,
kettle full of hot tar blowing up, passers-by getting hit with rock, etc.. Protects the
owner from lawsuit.
INTERPLY – Between two layers of roofing felts that have been laminated together.
IRMA – Insulated (or Inverted) Roof Membrane Assembly. In this system the roof
membrane is laid directly on the roof deck, covered with extruded foam insulation
and ballasted with stone, minimum of 1000 lbs. per square.
JOIST -A horizontally placed timber or beam set on edge to give support to a floor or
KETTLE -Equipment used for heating bitumen to a flowing consistency.
KICK HOLE -A defect frequently found in perimeter flashings arising from being
stepped on or kicked. A small fracture of the base flashing in the area of the cant.
KRAFT -A heavy water-resistant paper.
LAP -The amount of the preceding material being covered.
LIEN -The right by a worker or supplier to hold or sell your property if not paid by
the contractor for their work or products. You must obtain releases that are originals
and not copies, to assure all bills paid before final job payment.
LOOSE LAID -A membrane “laid loosely”, i.e., not adhered, over a roof deck or
MANSARD ROOF – A roof which rises by inclined planes from all four sides of a
building. The sloping roofs on all four sides have two pitches, the lower pitch
usually very steep and the upper pitch less steep.
MASTIC -Asphalt based sealant. Troweled, or applied by hand using rubber gloves.
Other trades have other types of mastic products.
MEMBRANE -A generic term relating to a variety of sheet goods used for certain
built-up roofing repairs and application. Also used to describe the combination of
felts and moppings of bitumen forming a single flexible unit and waterproofing
system of a BUR.
METAL EDGE – Brake metal or metal extrusions which are secured at the perimeter
of BURM to form a weathertight seal.
MINERAL SPIRITS – A by-product of petroleum, clear in color, a solvent for asphalt
MINERAL SURFACED – A heavy roofing felt that has very small granules embedded
across its surface.
MODIFIED-BITUMEN – Bitumen modified by special processing, generally with the
addition of SBS type rubber or atactic polypylenes (APP). Some are non-reinforced,
while others are reinforced with polyester, polyvinyl acetate, fiberglass,
polypropylene or aluminum foil.
MONITOR – A large structure rising above the surrounding roof planes, designed to
give light and/or ventilation to the building interior.
MOPPING – A layer of hot bitumen mopped between plies of roofing felt.
MOPPING, FULL – The application of bitumen by mopping in such a manner that
the surface being mopped is entirely coated with a reasonably uniform coating.
MOPPING, SPOT – The procedure of applying hot bitumen in a random fashion of
small daubs, as compared to full mopping.
MOPPING, SPRINKLE – A special application of installing insulation to the decks. It
is done by dipping a roof mop into hot bitumen and sprinkling the material onto the
MOPPING, STRIP – The application of bitumen in parallel bands.
MUD CRACKS – Cracks developing from the normal shrinkage of an emulsion
coating when applied too heavily.
NAILER -A piece of lumber secured to non-nailable decks and walls by bolts or
other means, which provides a suitable backing onto which roof components may
be mechanically fastened.
NINETY POUND -Saturated felt matting with asphalt-based coating and embedded
with color chips. By weight 90 lbs. per 100 square feet. 100 square feet per roll. This
is a waterproof product by itself.
NOSING -Metal edging of various widths but normally 10′ long. Used along the perimeter of the
eaves, gables, and up the rakes to cover plywood, other layers of roofing, or just to give a
nice clean look, especially when painted. Nailed to deck, or on top of new roofing in
high wind areas.
OIL CANNING -The term describing distortion of thin-gauge metal panels which are
fastened in a manner restricting normal thermal movement.
OPEN BEAM CEILING -When timber supports are visible inside and the ceiling is
also the outside roofing deck. Common to have 2×6, 2×4 tongue and groove boards
as this dual-use material.
OSB -Oriented Strand Board. An alternative to plywood, made from wood chips
oriented and glued in layers, to provide a strong deck surface. Sold in 4×8 foot
sheets, in various thicknesses.
OVERHANG -That part of the roof structure which extends horizontally beyond the
vertical plane of the exterior walls of a building.
OVERHEAD, CONTRACT -The cost of doing business. The amount of rent,
insurances, bonds, payroll, Payments, licenses, tool repair cost, tires, gas, oil, etc..
Really any thing that must be met before a profit is shown. The more there is the
more you have to make, sometimes having higher rates as a result.
OXIDISE -To combine with oxygen in the air.
PATCH -Temporary fix for a water leak.
PALLET -Tile and other materials when purchased in quantity, will come on a
prebuilt wooden structure. This is a pallet and the place where a forklift would put
the forks to lift the entire amount.
PARAPET WALL -A low wall around the perimeter of a roof deck.
PENNY -Unit of measure in describing the length of nails.
PERLITE -An aggregate formed by heating and expanding siliceous volcanic glass.
PHASE CONSTRUCTION -In roofing the practice of applying the felt plies of the
built-up roofing membrane in two or more operations, separated by a delay of at
least one day.
PIPE JACKS – Heating & plumbing flashings for penetrations
PITCH/ SLOPE – Describes how steep the roof is
PITCH -A term frequently used to designate coal tar pitch.
PITCH PAN OR POCKET -A bottomless metal box placed on the BURM around
irregular projections. These are subsequently filled with coal tar pitch or mastic to
effect a weather-tight seal.
PLY -Refers to layers of roofing applied. Such as 4 ply, that would be four complete
layers of roofing one on top of the other.
POINTING -The process where joints between masonry units, brick, etc., are filled
PONDING -A condition where water stands on a roof for prolonged periods due to
poor drainage and/or deflection of the deck.
POP RIVETS -Fasteners used to join pieces of metal that are installed by either
compressed air assisted or hand-operated guns. Unique in that they are installed
from one side of the work.
POUR COAT -The top coating of bitumen on a built-up roof.
PROJECTION -Any object or equipment which pierces the roof membrane.
PROTECTION BOARD -Heavy asphalt impregnated boards which are laid over
bituminous coatings to protect against mechanical injury.
PRORATED -In reference to warranties, this means the amount of rebate if any,
would be less the older the roof is.
PURLINS -A horizontal structural member spanning between beams or trusses to
support a roof deck.
RAGGLE ROCK – A specially designed masonry block having a slot or opening into
which the top edge of the roof flashing is inserted and anchored.
RAFTERS -The supports that hold up the roof and where the deck material would
RAKE -The sloped ends of framed gable sides.
RECOURSE -The actions that you can take to receive refund, judgement or penalty
from someone for unlawful actions.
REGLET – A horizontal slot, formed or cut in a parapet or other masonry wall, into
which the top edge of counterflashing can be inserted and anchored.
RE-IMPREGNATE -To replace oils and bitumen in the components of the BURM
which through weathering and oxidation, have been lost.
RESHEETING -Commonly means covering existing roof deck with a new layer of
RESUPPORT -Installing support for a heavy roofing material such as tile.
RIDGE -The horizontal line where the tops of roofing rafters meet at the peak of the roof. Also used to represent the material used to cover this area.
ROOF -The assembly of interacting components designed to weatherproof and
normally to insulate a buildings surface, separated from adjacent assemblies by
walls or changes in elevation.
ROOF COATING – A bituminous material, either a
cutback or an emulsion, to protect the surface of the BURM but not necessarily to re-
ROOF DECK – That component in building construction, which forms a platform on
which the remainder of the BURM components are placed.
ROOF DRAIN – The termination or fitting at the roof of an interior drain or leader, for
draining rain water from nominally flat roofs.
ROOF SYSTEM – General term referring to the waterproof covering, roof insulation,
vapor barrier, if used and roof deck as an entity.
ROOF VENT – Allows humidity to escape attic
RUN -The horizontal distance between the eaves and the ridge of the roof, being
half the span for a symmetrical gable roof.
SADDLE – A ridge in the roof deck, whose top divides two sloping parts of the roof
so that water will be diverted to the roof drains.
SCRIM – A woven or mat-type fabric that is used as a membrane sandwich between
other material to provide reinforcement and stretch resistance.
SCUPPER -An outlet in the wall of a building or a parapet wall for drainage of water
from a flat roof.
SELF-HEALING -A term used in reference to a material which melts with the heat
from the sun’s rays, and seals over cracks that were earlier formed from other
SELF-LEVELING -A viscous material that is applied by pouring. In its uncured state,
it spreads out evenly.
SELVAGE -The unsurfaced strip along a sheet of roll roofing which forms the under
portion at the lap in the application of the roof covering.
SEVENTY TWO POUND -A roll material used for the top layer of a hot tar roof.
Weight of 72 lbs. per 100 square feet. Not waterproof by itself.
SHEAR -Measurement used to determine the horizontal strength of an embedded
object. Ie: How much force or weight does it take to pull a nail out of wood.
SHEATHING -The boards of sheet type material, plywood or asphalt saturated
sheets, nailed to studding or roofing rafters as the base for application of the roof
SHED ROOF -A roof having only one slope or pitch, with only one set of rafters
which fall from a higher to a lower wall.
SHEETING -The actual deck material, like 1×4’s, or plywood.
SHINGLE-FASHION -The pattern formed by laying parallel felt rolls with lapped
joints so that one longitudinal edge overlaps the longitudinal edge on the adjacent
felts. Shingle fashion application begin at the low point on a roof so that one ply
drains water to a lower one and so on to a drain or to the roof edge.
SHINGLES -Small units of material which are laid in a series of overlapping rows as
a roof covering on pitched roofs.
SIGN ANCHOR -A component usually formed with steel angles which penetrates
the BUR and is fastened to the deck.
SINGLE PLY -A descriptive term signifying a roof membrane composed of only one
layer of material such as EPDM, Hypalon or PVC.
SKIP SHEETING -Decking, using 1×4 boards with one installed, skip one, install the
next etc.. Allows wood roofing to have air circulation.
SKY DOME -A type of skylight exhibiting a characteristic translucent plastic domed
SKYLIGHT -A structure on a roof that is designed to admit light and is somewhat
above the plane of the roof surface. BR> SLATE -A dark gray stratified stone cut
relatively thin and installed on pitched roofs in a shingle-like fashion.
SLIPPAGE -It is the sliding, lateral movement between adjacent to plies of felt along
the plane of the bitumen film separating them, which results in a randomly wrinkled
SLOPE -Incline or pitch of roof surface.
SOFFIT -The underside of a part or member of a building extending out from the
plane of the building walls.
SPECS OR SPECIFICATION -Short for specifications. All the information about a
material and any requirements for installation.
SPLITTING -The formation of long cracks completely through a roof membrane.
Splits are frequently associated with lack of allowance for expansion stresses. They
can also be a result of deck deflection or change in deck direction.
SPUD -The removal of gravel or heavy accumulations of bitumen from a roof
membranes by means of chipping or scraping.
SQUARES -A square is 100 square feet in roofing area. A roof of 1500 square feet
would be 15 squares.10’ by 10’ area is one square of roof
STACK -A vertical exhaust flue pipe generally for stoves projecting through a BUR that carries off smoke or gases.
STANDING SEAM -A type of joint often used on metal roofs.
STEPSHINGLE -In the construction of the BUR the narrow strips of roofing felts, cut
from standard width rolls, that are applied at the beginning point so as to assure
uniform configuration of the specified number of plies.
STANDING LOAD -In roofing, the total amount of permanent non moving weight that
is applied to given surface areas
STRONGBACK -A support used in attics to distribute weight.
SUMMER/WINTER GRADE MASTIC-Type of mastic that can be used in cold
weather is called Winter Grade. It is formulated to be thinner in consistency to allow
it to be worked when cold. Summer Grade the opposite, to be used when weather is
hot. Stiffer and will not run in summer temps.
SUMPA -reservoir sometimes forming part of a roof drain. A depression in the roof
deck of a building at a roof and delivery it to the drain.
TEAR OFF -A term used to describe the complete removal of the built up roof
membrane and insulation down to and exposing the roof deck.
THIRTY POUND -Roofing felt that weighs 30 lbs. per 100 square feet. 18 and 36″
rolls, one and two squares respectively.
TIE IN -A term used to describe the joining of a new roof with the old.
TIN SHINGLE -Thin metal rectangles about 4×8 inches.
TONGUE AND GROOVE -Wood boards with a groove on one side and a ridge or
tongue on the other, to lock together for strength.
TOP MOPPING -The finished mopping of hot bitumen on a built-up roof.
TORCHING -Applying direct flame to a membrane for the purpose of melting,
heating or adhering.
TRUSS -A major supporting structure usually timber for roof decks.
TUCK POINTING -The re-grouting of defective mortar joints in a masonry or brick
TURBINE -Air flow device used to ventilate attic areas. Mounted on the roof and
driven by the wind.
UNDERLAYMENT -Materials used to complement others as a first of two or more
layers, typically the felt or base sheet underneath.
UTILITY KNIFE -A handheld tool that can hold different types of razor blades.
VALLEY -Depression angle created when two sloped areas meet and where two roof planes come together.
VALLEY METAL -Sheet metal used to cover valley areas of the roof.
VAPOR RETARDER -A membrane which is placed between the insulation and the
roof deck to retard water vapor in the building from entering the insulation and
condensing into liquid water.
VEINING -The characteristic lines or “stretch marks” which develop during the aging
process of soft bitumens.
VENT PIPE -A vertical pipe of relatively small dimensions which protrudes through a
roof to provide for the ventilation of gasses.
VENTILATOR -Device installed on the roof for the purpose of ventilating the interior
of the building.
VENTING -(1) The process of installing roof vents in a roof assembly to relieve vapor
pressure. And (2) The process of water in the insulation course of the roof assembly
evaporating nd exiting via the roof vents.
VERMICULITE – An aggregate that is somewhat similar to perlite that is used as an
aggregate in lightweight roof decks and deck fills. It is formed from mica, a hydrous
VERTICAL APPLICATION -Roll roofing laid parallel to the slope of a roof.
WATER STOP -A device designed to protect the exposed edge of a partially
installed BURM from water entrance.
WEEP HOLE -A hole which allows for drainage of entrapped water from masonry
WET/DRY-WET PATCH -Type of mastic that can be used on wet or dry surfaces.
WHIRLYBIRD -See turbine
WORKMAN’S COMP -Insurance held by an employer in the case a worker is hurt on
the job. This can cost more than 50 cents on every dollar paid in wages, for roofers.
WRINKLE -A raised pattern of ridges running in a random fashion in a BUR.